EcoFlight brings the power of the aerial perspective to support national, regional and local conservation groups in their missions to protect critical habitat and ecosystems. We collaborate with the following and other groups on conservation issues in which they are currently engaged.
The League exists to lead the effort to preserve Alaska’s wilderness by engaging citizens, sharing resources, collaborating with other organizations, educating the public, and providing a courageous, constant and victorious voice for Alaska in the nation’s capital from all 50 states that work together to keep Alaska’s wild places protected for future generations. Alaska Wilderness League is a member of the Alaska Coalition and also helps facilitate and staff the Coalition to further support its continued success.
American Rivers is the leading conservation organization standing up for healthy rivers so communities can thrive. American Rivers protects and restores the nation's rivers and the clean water that sustains people, wildlife, and nature. Founded in 1973, American Rivers has more than 65,000 members and supporters, with offices in Washington, DC and nationwide.
American Wildlands uses science, advocacy and community engagement to pursue a regional landscape of interconnected habitats with healthy populations of Rocky Mountain wildlife. The focus of their work, identifying and conserving critical wildlife movement corridors and habitat connectivity, is grounded in conservation biology and road ecology.
The Arizona Wilderness Coalition's (AWC) mission is to permanently protect and restore Wilderness and other wild lands and waters in Arizona for the enjoyment of all citizens and to ensure that Arizona's native plants and animals have a lasting home in wild nature.
The Audubon Society's mission is to conserve and restore natural ecosystems, focusing on birds, other wildlife and their habitats for the benefit of humanity and the earth's biological diversity. Visit their site to find your local Audubon chapter and get involved.
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ALLIANCE
The Biodiversity Conservation Alliance works to protect wildlife and wild places in Wyoming and surrounding states, particularly on public lands. Using outreach and education to foster public support for biodiversity and wild areas, they use science and the law to hold public managers and decision-makers accountable for protecting the nation's natural heritage and upholding the public trust.
BLACKFEET ANTI-FRACKING COALITION
Because our mother is beautiful and we respect her. Because we value our lives and and our health enough to protect ourselves. Because we love our families, friends, neighbors, and our animal brothers and sisters. Because we brag to people from off the reservation about the beauty of our mountains and prairies. Because we have other options such as wind energy and tourism. Because we have too much pride to sacrifice our health and the beauty of our land
BUFFALO FIELD CAMPAIGN
The Buffalo Field Campaign works to stop the slaughter and harassment of Yellowstone's wild buffalo herd and to protect the natural habitat of wild free-roaming buffalo and native wildlife.
CABINET RESOURCE GROUP
The mission of the Cabinet Resource Group is to protect natural resources through education and action. It focuses on habitat issues in the Cabinet Mountains, the Yaak region and the Clark Fork drainage in western Montana and the lake Pend Orielle area in Idaho.
The Campaign joins with state and local partners to raise public awareness of our special wild lands and to secure dependable, permanent protection for wild lands administered by the U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and other federal agencies
CANYONLANDS WATERSHED COUNCIL
The Canyonlands Watershed Council promotes and protects the health of southeastern Utah water and watersheds, ensuring that the public trust (the principle that natural resources are preserved for public use, and that the government is required to maintain them in healthy condition for future generations) is addressed by public processes.
The Center for American Progress is an independent nonpartisan educational institute dedicated to improving the lives of Americans through progressive ideas and action.
Center for Biological Diversity believes that the welfare of human beings is deeply linked to nature — to the existence in our world of a vast diversity of wild animals and plants. Because diversity has intrinsic value, and because its loss impoverishes society, they work to secure a future for all species hovering on the brink of extinction. They do so through science, law and creative media, with a focus on protecting the lands, waters and climate that species need to survive.
CITIZENS PROTECTING THE WYOMING RANGE
Citizens Protecting the Wyoming Range brings together a diverse collection of voices and interests to take a stand against new energy development in the Wyoming Range, one of the state's most impressive, but unprotected treasures. Comprised of local landowners, hunters, anglers, business owners and ranchers, CPWR is united in the belief that rampant drilling should not be allowed to spread into this special part of Bridger-Teton National Forest.
CLARK FORK COALITION
The Clark Fork Coalition is dedicated to protecting and restoring the Clark Fork River basin, a 22,000-square mile area draining western Montana and northern Idaho.
Coal Diver is an interactive website and resource for coal mining statistics, maps, photos and videos, original documents, news articles and the major players in the coal industry. They do a good job making learning about coal mines pretty interesting. Stay updated on issues and join their advocacy actions. Check out their pictures from Eco Flight!
COALITION FOR THE VALLE VIDAL
The Coalition for the Valle Vidal is made up of sportsmen, ranchers, outfitters, local business, concerned citizens, outdoor enthusiasts and conservation groups, all united in opposition to developing the Valle Vidal for coalbed methane.
Colorado Canyons Association fosters community stewardship of our National Conservation System Lands with a focus on Dominguez-Escalante, Gunnison Gorge and McInnis Canyons National Conservation Areas in Western Colorado. They are a non-partisan, non-profit organization encouraging cooperation among all NCA users and interests.
COLORADO ENVIRONMENTAL COALITION
The Colorado Environmental Coalition is the largest state-based citizen’s group committed to conserving our clean air, water and open spaces for generations to come. By strengthening the effectiveness of Colorado’s environmental community, the Coalition has a legacy of success for our state’s wild places and quality of life. With the help of thousands of members across the state who recognize that the economic value our wild places offer is as important to Colorado as the spiritual fulfillment these public lands provide residents and visitors, the Coalition is a powerful voice for our state.
The primary purposes of the club are to gather and disseminate information regarding the Colorado mountains in the areas of art, science, literature and recreation; to furnish facilities for the enjoyment and study of the mountains by the Club members and the public; and to advocate for the preservation of the alpine regions.
Colorado Wild works to protect, preserve and restore the native plants and animals of the Southern Rocky Mountains with particular attention given to habitat protection of Colorado's forested, roadless, public lands and other ecologically important areas. Colorado Wild researches, critiques and strategically challenges logging and ski resort development proposals on the ground statewide and strives to proactively foster sound public land stewardship while galvanizing public support for long-term forest and biological diversity protection.
An all-Navajo environmental organization based whithin the Navajo Homeland, Diné CARE's main goal is to empower local and traditional people to organize, speak out and determine their own destinies promoting alternative uses of natural resources that are consistent with the Diné philosophy of Beauty Way
DOLORES RIVER BOATING ADVOCATES
Based in Dolores, Colorado, the Dolores River Boating Advocates represent boating enthusiasts, guides, outfitters, anglers and people who simply love the Dolores River–and who have a stake in protecting flows in the river and preserving its unique ecosystem below McPhee Reservoir.
DOLORES RIVER COALITION
The Dolores River Coalition joins together local, state and national organizations with business, recreation and conservation interests to protect the natural attributes of the Dolores Basin for the long term benefit of residents and visitors. They advocate for protection of water quality, wilderness values, recreation and wildlife in response to energy development proposals throughout the Dolores River Basin.
Earthjustice is a non-profit public interest law firm dedicated to protecting the magnificent places, natural resources and wildlife of this earth and to defending the right of all people to a healthy environment.
EARTHWORKS is a non-profit organization dedicated to protecting communities and the environment from the destructive impacts of mineral development, in the U.S. and worldwide. EARTHWORKS stands for clean water, healthy communities and corporate accountability.
FEDERAL FOREST CARBON COALITION
The goal of the Federal Forest Carbon Coalition is to increase understanding, at the national, state, and local levels, of the important role U.S. forests play in regulating the Earth’s climate, and to shift federal forest management so it minimizes the release of carbon, optimizes climate sequestration, and generates associated ecological, social and social justice, and economic co-benefits.
FOR THE FOREST
For the Forest works to promote the health of forests, with particular emphasis on promoting the long-term sustainability of Western forests by providing research, management, expertise and related resources, developing and implementing forest management plans and engaging in relevant activities related to the protection and conservation of forests.
FREEDOM TO ROAM
Freedom to Roam is a non-profit initiative that brings together people, organizations and businesses to enhance and protect wildlife corridors and landscape connectivity in North America.
FRIENDS OF BROWNS CANYON
For years, a local coalition comprised of recreationists, sportsmen and local businesses have been working to protect Browns Canyon. The Friends of Browns Canyon, along with bipartisan lawmakers, are working towards permanent protection of the approximately 20,000 acre area.
FRIENDS OF THE RED DESERT
Friends of the Red Desert is a coalition of citizens, businesses and conservation organizations united to protect Wyoming's magnificent Red Desert.
FRIENDS OF SCOTCHMAN PEAKS
Spanning the Idaho/Montana border, the Scotchmans are one of the last, and largest, wild areas in the region. They conduct education, outreach and stewardship activities to preserve the rugged, scenic and biologically diverse 88,000 acre Scotchman Peaks Roadless Area. They believe the Scotchman Peaks deserve congressional designation as Wilderness for the benefit and enjoyment of current and future generations.
GILA RESOURCES INFORMATION PROJECT
Gila Resources Information Project is a non-profit environmental advocacy group that works to promote community health and protect New Mexico's quality of life. They promote planning, groundwater protection,and free-running rivers in the face of unsustainable development practices and facilitate informed public participation in resource use decisions.
Glen Canyon Institute (GCI) is dedicated to the restoration of Glen Canyon and a free flowing Colorado River. GCI is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization focused on educating the public and decision makers, advocating science-based public policy, and organizing positive citizen action. GCI actively works towards the protection and full restoration of Glen Canyon and other Colorado River corridors and ecosystems, including Grand Canyon and the Colorado River Delta.
GRAND CANYON TRUST
The mission of the Grand Canyon Trust is to protect and restore the Colorado Plateau — its spectacular landscapes, flowing rivers, clean air, diversity of plants and animals, and areas of beauty and solitude.
Great Basin Resource Watch is a coalition of environmental, Native American and scientific community representatives dedicated to protecting the health and well being of the land, air, water, wildlife and human communities of the Great Basin from the adverse effects of resource extraction and use.
GREATER YELLOWSTONE COALITION
GYC works to shape a future where wildlife populations maintain their diversity and vitality, where ecological processes function with minimal intervention, and where exceptional outdoor recreational opportunities abound for residents and visitor, alike.
HIGH COUNTRY CONSERVATION ADVOCATES
High Country Conservation Advocates protects the health and natural beauty of the land, rivers, and wildlife in and around Gunnison County now and for future generations. HCCA is a grassroots organization that collaborates with local stakeholders and policymakers, applies sound science, educates, and upholds the environmental laws affecting our community.
IDAHO CONSERVATION LEAGUE
Based in Boise, Idaho, their team of top-notch lawyers and scientists works with conservation groups and activists across the West to demand that federal and state agencies manage our public lands and wildlife properly – and to hold them accountable when they violate environmental laws or ignore science.
JACKSON HOLE CONSERVATION ALLIANCE
The jackson Hole Conservation Alliance is dedicated to responsible land stewardship in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. They monitor the impacts of growth and development on public and private lands in and around the valley and intervene when the impacts to their natural resources become too high. They encourage citizen input, believing that natural resource protection is best accomplished when citizens become informed and actively involved.
Living Rivers promotes river restoration through mobilization. By articulating conservation and alternative management strategies to the public, we seek to revive the natural habitat and spirit of rivers by undoing the extensive damage done by dams, diversions and pollution on the Colorado Plateau.
MONTANA ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION CENTER
The Montana Environmental Information Center is Montana's leading state government-focused environmental advocate that protects clean water and a healthy environment for all Montanans.
MONTANA WILDERNESS ASSOCATION
Since 1958, the Montana Wilderness Association has worked to protect Montana’s wilderness, wildlife habitat, and traditional recreation opportunities. We were instrumental in the passage of the 1964 Wilderness Act and in the designation of every Wilderness area in the state, such as the Bob Marshall, Scapegoat, and Absaroka-Beartooth Wildernesses. We also helped win Wild and Scenic designations for the Missouri and Flathead rivers, and National Monument status for the stunning Upper Missouri.”
NATIONAL PARKS CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
The National Parks Conservation Association works to protect and enhance America's National Parks for present and future generations.
NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION
National Wildlife Federation inspires Americans to protect wildlife for our children's future. NWF works with over 4 million members, partners, and supporters to actively educate, inspire, and promote achievable solutions to everyday Americans in communities from coast-to-coast. Our conservation work focuses on three major areas that will have the biggest impact on the future of America’s wildlife: Confront Global Warming, Protect and Restore Wildlife Habitat, and Connect with Nature.
NATIVE FOREST NETWORK
The Native Forest Network seeks to protect and restore forests and wild places, by representing the public interest in public land and resource-management planning and bringing public, media and political attention to imperiled forest ecosystems. The Native Forest Network and other conservation organizations are working to promote bona-fide, ecologically based restoration projects which put people in rural communities to work conducting road removal and watershed restoration activities.
NEW MEXICO WILDERNESS ALLIANCE
The New Mexico Wilderness Alliance is a grassroots environmental organization dedicated to the protection, restoration and continued enjoyment of New Mexico's wildlands and Wilderness areas. Their primary goal is to ensure the protection and restoration of all remaining wild lands in New Mexico through administrative designations, federal Wilderness designation and on-going advocacy.
NEW MEXICO WILDLIFE FEDERATION
Founded in 1914 by Aldo Leopold and other conservation-minded sportsmen, the New Mexico Wildlife Federation led the way in bringing back elk, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, wild turkey and other wildlife species to New Mexico. They continue to be the the voice for New Mexico’s conservation-minded sportsmen and outdoor enthusiasts in the New Mexico state Legislature and governor’s office, as well as in Congress.
NORTH FORK ACTION
Led by co-chairs from Citizens for a Healthy Community and The Western Slope Conservation Center; a set of individuals representing organic growers, wineries, ranching, businesses, and conservationists convened over the year to consider management that could be proposed to BLM as part of its Resource Management Plan revision, to ensure adequate protections for important resources, activities and features of the North Fork.
NORTHERN PLAINS RESOURCE COUNCIL
Northern Plains organizes Montana citizens to protect their water quality, family farms and ranches and unique quality of life. They are a grassroots conservation and family agriculture group that gets the job done - protecting the Northern Plains and the people who make their home there.
The members of ‘Nunamta’ are eight Alaska Native Village Corporations, located in the Bristol Bay region of Alaska. Nunamta was established to identify areas of mutual interest pertaining to uses of corporate lands, and to establish a framework for collaboration in the management and protection of such lands and natural resources. The activities of the corporation are undertaken to promote cooperation among the land owners, regulatory agencies and resource users of corporate lands; conserve land, water, and natural resources; and to maximize the benefits from the wise use of our lands to the shareholders, their descendents, their communities and culture.
OIL AND GAS ACCOUNTABILITY PROJECT
The Oil and Gas Accountability Project Works with communities throughout the Rocky Mountain West and across the country to reduce the social, economic and environmental problems caused by oil and gas development.
OREGON NATURAL DESERT ASSOCIATION
The Oregon Natural Desert Association is a grassroots organization committed to protecting, defending and restoring the health of Oregon's native deserts for present and future generations.
Patagonia believes that business can inspire solutions to the environmental crisis. This means that what we make and how we make it must cause the least harm to the environment. They evaluate raw materials, invest in innovative technologies, and rigorously police their waste.
POWDER RIVER BASIN RESOURCE COUNCIL
Powder River Basin Resource Council is committed to the preservation and enrichment of Wyoming’s agricultural heritage and rural lifestyle, the conservation of Wyoming’s unique land, mineral , water, and clean air resources consistent with responsible use of those resources to sustain the livelihood of present and future generations and the education and empowerment of Wyoming’s citizens to raise a coherent voice in the decisions that will impact their environment and lifestyle.
Protect the Flows Project is a coalition of nearly 500 businesses–rafting outfitters, bed and breakfasts, fishing guides, outdoor retailers, wineries, birding guides, restaurants, and chambers of commerce–just to name a few. They own and operate businesses in communities along the Colorado River and its tributaries in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, California, Nevada, New Mexico and they all agree that protecting the flows in the Colorado River will keep revenue flowing into our local economies.
REPUBLICANS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Republicans for Environmental Protection was founded in 1995
to resurrect the GOP's great conservation tradition
and to restore natural resource conservation and sound environmental protection
as fundamental elements of the Republican Party's vision for America.
ROCK CREEK ALLIANCE
Rock Creek Alliance works to protect our public lands and water resources from the impacts of hard rock mining in Idaho and western Montana.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK FOUNDATION
The Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation's mission is to ensure the future of elk, other wildlife and their habitat.
SAN JUAN CITIZENS ALLIANCE
The San Juan Citizens Alliance organizes for the land and people of the San Juan Basin. Our major priorities include protecting wildlife and wildlands, advocating greater corporate and governmental responsibility in development of oil and gas resources, protecting and restoring rivers, and promoting basic civil rights and civil liberties for all residents.
SELKIRK CONSERVATION ALLIANCE
The Selkirk Conservation Alliance works for the protection of the crucial and sensitive natural resources of the United States' Selkirk Mountains, an area that spans the Washington-Idaho border and extends north to the Canadian border. The Inland Temperate Rainforest, part of the Purcell-Cabinet Mountain Corridor, stretches across northern extremes of Washington, Idaho and Montana and is the only place on earth where temperate rainforests are found so far from any ocean.
Sheep Mountain Alliance is a grassroots citizen organization dedicated to the preservation of the natural environment in the Telluride Region and Southwest Colorado. To this end, Sheep Mountain Alliance will provide education for and protection of regional ecosystems, wildlife habitats and watersheds.
The Sierra Club has been working since 1892 to protect communities, wild places and the planet itself. They are the oldest, largest and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the United States.
The Sonoran Institute works with communities to conserve and restore important natural landscapes in Western North America, including the wildlife and cultural values of these lands. The Institute’s efforts create lasting benefits, including healthy landscapes and vibrant livable communities that embrace conservation as an integral element of their economies and quality of life.
SOUTHERN ROCKIES CONSERVATION ALLIANCE
The Southern Rockies Conservation Alliance focuses on protection and preservation of public lands in Colorado and southern Wyoming. They develop and implement coordinated, comprehensive and effective campaigns to protect wilderness quality lands, conserve and restore diversity, promote healthy forest ecosystems and restore natural fire regimes.
SOUTHERN ROCKIES ECOSYSTEM PROJECT
Founded in 1992, The Southern Rockies Ecosystem Project (SREP) is a non-profit conservation science organization working to protect, restore and connect ecosystems in the Southern Rockies of Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico. SREP utilizes conservation science principles and geographic information system (GIS) mapping technology to identify and protect wildlands critical to the preservation of native biodiversity in the Southern Rockies.
SOUTHERN UTAH WILDERNESS ALLIANCE
SUWA’S mission is to preserve the outstanding wilderness at the heart of the Colorado Plateau, and the management of these lands in their natural state for the benefit of all Americans.
SOS-SUSTAINABLE OBTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
The SOS mission is to revamp the paradigm of public land management to one that respects all type of people and nature, and meets their vigorous dedication to sustainability.
SPORTSMEN FOR RESPONSIBLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
Sportsmen for Responsible Energy Development is a coalition of more than 500 businesses, organizations and individuals dedicated to conserving irreplaceable habitats so future generations can hunt and fish on America's public lands. The coalition is led by the National Wildlife Federation, Trout Unlimited and the Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership.
Founded by Dr. Theo Colborn, TEDX is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to compiling and disseminating the scientific evidence on the health and environmental problems caused by low-level exposure to chemicals that interfere with development and function, called endocrine disruptors.
THE NATURE CONSERVANCY
The Nature Conservancy is the leading conservation organization working around the world to protect ecologically important lands and waters for nature and people.
THE NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENSE COUNCIL
The Natural Resources Defense Council's purpose is to safeguard the Earth: its people, its plants and animals and the natural systems on which all life depends. NRDC strives to protect nature in ways that advance the long-term welfare of present and future generations.
THE NEVADA WILDERNESS PROJECT
The Nevada Wilderness Project is a catalyst for wildlife habitat conservation, wilderness preservation and smart development of renewable energy.
THE PEREGRINE FUND
The Peregrine Fund works nationally and internationally to conserve birds of prey in nature by restoring species in jeopardy, conserving habitat, educating students, training conservationists and providing factual information to the public.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT CONSERVATION PARTNERSHIP
The Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership is a coalition of hunting, fishing and conservation organizations, labor unions and individual grassroots partners who represent the wide spectrum of America's outdoor community. They are dedicated to the stewardship of America's landscape, helping to expand fish and wildlife habitat and increasing public access to quality hunting and fishing.
The mission of Trout Unlimited is to conserve, protect and restore North America's coldwater fisheries and their watersheds. Their vision is to ensure that robust populations of native and wild coldwater fish once again thrive in their North American range, so that future generations can enjoy healthy fisheries in their home waters.
THE WILDERNESS SOCIETY
The mission of the Wilderness Society is to deliver to future generations an unspoiled legacy of wild places, with all the precious values they hold: Biological diversity; clean air and water; towering forests, rushing rivers, and sage-sweet, silent deserts. We bring to bear our scientific expertise, analysis and bold advocacy at the highest levels to save, protect and restore America's wilderness areas.
With a vision for a just and sustainable world, INVST Community Studies programs develop engaged citizens and leaders who work for the benefit of humanity and the environment.
The Upper Green River Valley Coalition is a group of citizens, sportsmen, businesses and conservation organizations dedicated to responsible, sustainable management of the wildlife, waters and air quality of Wyoming's Upper Green. This portion of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is under intense pressure from the oil and gas industry and the Coalition's mission is to ensure energy extraction is balanced with the valley's supreme natural values.
US FOREST SERVICE
The US Forest Service established in 1905, manages public lands in national forests and grasslands, encompassing 193 million acres of land, an area equivalent to the size of Texas.
WESTERN COLORADO CONGRESS
Western Colorado Congress (WCC) is a grassroots, democratic organization dedicated to challenging injustice by organizing people to increase their power over decisions that affect their lives. WCC's community groups and members work together to create healthy, sustainable communities, social and economic justice, environmental stewardship and a truly democratic society.
WESTERN ORGANIZATION OF RESOURCE COUNCILS (WORC)
WORC’s mission is to advance the vision of a democratic, sustainable, and just society through community action. WORC is committed to building sustainable environmental and economic communities that balance economic growth with the health of people and stewardship of their land, water, and air resources.
WILD THINGS UNLIMITED
The purpose of Wild Things Unlimited is to increase the effectiveness of wildlife and habitat management in the Rocky Mountains through two campaigns: conducting vital wildlife research, and increasing the public's awareness of and participation in natural resource issues through education and outreach programs that provide individuals with a greater connection to the natural world.
WildEarth Guardian's mission is to protect and restore wildlife, wild places and wild rivers in the American West.
The Wilderness Workshop’s mission is to protect and conserve the wilderness and natural resources of the Roaring Fork Watershed, the White River National Forest, and adjacent public lands in Colorado. WW engages in research, education, legal advocacy, and grassroots organizing to protect the ecological integrity of local landscapes and public lands. WW focuses on the monitoring and conservation of air and water quality, wildlife species and habitat, natural communities and lands of wilderness quality.
WYOMING OUTDOOR COUNCIL
The Wyoming Outdoor Council has worked for more than four decades to protect Wyoming's iconic western landscapes, it's world-renowned wildlife and its clean air and water.
First created in 1979 by a group of wilderness advocates and outdoors people who envisioned the Wyoming Wilderness Act, the Wyoming Wilderness Association is working to protect our public wild lands to ensure a future of wild places for people and wildlife.
WYOMING WILDLIFE FEDERATION
The Wyoming Wildlife Federation works for hunters, anglers and other wildlife enthusiasts to protect and enhance habitat, to perpetuate quality hunting and fishing, to protect citizens rights to use public lands and waters and to promote ethical hunting and fishing.
YAAK VALLEY FOREST COUNCIL
Yaak Valley Forest Council works to protect the last remaining roadless cores in the Yaak Valley, nestled in the Kootenai National Forest, in the extreme northwest corner of Montana, through Wilderness designation and other management tools. They are committed to cultivating and encouraging meaningful dialog between historically polarized groups, bringing these groups to the same table to find common ground on ecosystem-based forest management practices.